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The PostedFile. FileName attribute is used to give the saved file the same name as the file it was copied from. If you want to name the file something else, simply use the SaveAs method in the following manner: FileUpload1.
In the example, the file's name, size, and content type are retrieved and displayed on the page for the end user. When the file is uploaded to the server, the page generated is similar to that shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 Uploading files to another server can be an error-prone affair.
It is vital to upload files in your code using proper exception handling. That's why the file in the example is uploaded using a Try Catch statement. Giving ASP. These might occur because the destination folder on the server is not writable for the account used by ASP. If ASP. NET is not enabled to write to the folder you want, you can enable it using the folder's properties.
First, right-click on the folder where the ASP. NET files should be uploaded and select Properties from the provided menu. The Properties dialog for the selected folder opens. Click the Security tab to make sure the ASP. NET Machine Account is included in the list and has the proper permissions to write to disk. If it is enabled, you see something similar to what is presented in Figure 2. Figure 3 Click OK, and you can then click the appropriate check boxes to provide the permissions needed for your application.
Understanding File Size Limitations Your end users might never encounter an issue with the file upload process in your application, but you should be aware that some limitations exist. When users work through the process of uploading files, a size restriction is actually 5 sent to the server for uploading. The default size limitation is 4MB kb ; the transfer fails if a user tries to upload a file that is larger than kb.
A size restriction protects your application. You want to prevent malicious users from uploading numerous large files to your Web server in an attempt to tie up all the available processes on the server. Such an occurrence is called a denial of service attack. It ties up the Web server's resources so that legitimate users are denied responses from the server.
One of the great things about. You can usually change the default settings that are in place. To change the limit on the allowable upload file size, you make some changes in either the web.
In the web. In this file, you see that the default allowable file size is dictated by the actual request size permitted to the Web server KB. Listing 2: Changing the file-size limitation setting in the web. Thanks also go to Rolf Crozier, who initially discussed this project with me in the early days.
I owe a special thank you to my colleague Bob Knutson, who reviewed drafts of the material in this book. Thanks go to Greg Frankenfield and Paul Fridman for creating a top-notch Microsoft-based consulting organization that allows me to work on client projects as well as my own. The technical growth I have experienced throughout my time at Magenic has been immeasurable. Here's to Magenic's continued success.
I am learning a tremendous amount about the. NET Framework and C simply by reading your posts. The banter sent back and forth has given me a better understanding of how all of these new pieces fit together.
Brian Patterson: I'd like to thank my wife, Aimee, for allowing me the many hours hidden away in the computer so I could complete my work on this book. A special thanks to Steve Cisco for the hard work he put into this book, which led the way for the rest of us; to Sharon Cox, the acquisitions editor, who constantly kept me on track; to the project editor, Eric Newman, for keeping all my ducks in a row; and to the series editor, Michael Lane Thomas, who reviewed each and every chapter, making some very good suggestions and providing some valuable insight into Microsoft and the.
NET framework. Pierre Boutquin: Much hard work goes into the creation of a book, and not just from the people mentioned on the cover. I must especially thank the Wiley team for their tremendous dedication to produce a quality book. The reviewers deserve a lot of credit for making me look like an accomplished writer.
Meeta Gupta: I thank Anita for giving me the opportunity. However, my biggest thanks go to Nitin for, well, everything.
These languages provided a severe degree of control to the developer by letting them use pointers and many low-level system functions. However, when you compare languages. What the developer community needed was a language that fell somewhere in between these two. A language that would help with rapid application development but would also allow for a great deal of control and a language that would integrate well with Web-application development, XML, and many of the emerging technologies.
Microsoft introduced C to the public at the Professional Developer's Conference in Orlando, Florida, in the summer of NET Framework and provides a very productive coding experience for both new and seasoned developers. This chapter dives into the four components that make up the. NET platform as well as explores the support for emerging Web technologies.
It then briefly discusses many of the features found in the C language and how it compares to other popular languages. Because C is a player in this new. NET world, you should have a good understanding of what the. NET Framework provides and how it increases your productivity.
NET environment. NET Framework was designed with three goals in mind. In addition to providing high performance and scalability, ASP. NET applications are highly reliable and secure. The greater reliability and security features enable your application users to build more confidence in using them. This book seeks to provide to all Web-application developers a greater understanding of ASP.
This book covers ASP. NET from its basic features to its advanced features, such as application configuration, caching, security, localization, XML Web services, and deployment.
Icons Used in This Book Each icon used in this book signifies a special meaning. Here's what each icon means: Note Note icons provide supplemental information about the subject at hand but generally something that isn't quite the main idea. Notes are often used to elaborate on a detailed technical point. Tip Tips provide special information or advice.
They indicate a more efficient way of doing something or a technique that may not be 7. Caution Caution icons warn you of a potential problem or error.
Cross- Reference Cross-Reference icons direct you to related information in another section or chapter.
NET features and to enable them to develop rich, secure, and reliable Web applications. The book begins by introducing the basic features of ASP. NET features. This book is divided into five parts. Part I: NET Basics This part presents the salient features of the. NET Framework and introduces you to the relationship of the.
This part covers the basic features of ASP. In addition, this part discusses how to create custom Web controls and to use various ASP. NET debugging techniques to debug Web applications. Part II: NET technology. NET applications to access and manipulate server-side data.
This part also covers data binding with ASP. NET server controls and discusses how to work with Data Grids. Also, it discusses working with XML. Finally, it presents you with Web-server control templates to customize the look and layout of server controls. Part III: Advanced ASP.
NE T, such as application configuration, caching, and security. This part discusses how to develop business objects the. It also discusses how to develop localized ASP. NET applications. Finally, this part presents you with the deployment of ASP. Part IV: It then discusses how to build and deploy Web services.
Finally, this part discusses how to find and consume Web services. Part V: Building ASP. NET Web services using the Microsoft. Appendixes This section of the book provides an overview of Visual Basic. NET and C. Use this section as a reference for these programming languages.
In fact, this section provides an easy way for beginners to get started with ASP. NET by introducing the salient features of Visual Basic. Companion Web Site This book provides a companion Web site from which you can download the code from various chapters. All the code listings reside in a single WinZip file that you can download by going to www. NET Bible link. If you don't currently have WinZip, you can download an evaluation version from www. You'll see folders arranged by chapter number, and some of those chapter folders will contain subfolders.
If you'd rather download just the code you need from a particular chapter — when you need it — simply click the separate chapter link on the Web site instead of downloading the entire WinZip file. Acknowledgments It's a great feeling to acknowledge the efforts and contributions of each one of those who were involved in the development of this book.
Without their valuable contributions, this book wouldn't have been possible. Thank you once again for giving a helping hand when it was needed the most. Thank you all for your valuable contributions, without which this book wouldn't be possible.
Sharon Cox — a great acquisitions editor to work with! Sharon Nash — thanks for your patience. My family — for their ongoing support in all of my endeavors. NET Users group — it is an outstanding organization due in large part to his efforts. I would also like to thank Craig Smyth, whose support and encouragement have contributed much to the career success I enjoy today. I am also grateful to Bob Hundman at Novus International for allowing me to "disappear" when I needed to while writing for this book.
And, of course, a special thank you to my wife, Rhonda, who was patient and supportive while I worked into the wee hours of many nights and during our family vacation in order to meet the book's deadlines. You guys are great to work with! Of course, the great people at Hungry Minds who gave me this opportunity need to be mentioned as well, namely Sharon Cox and Sharon Nash. Their attention to detail and occasional prodding are what helped make this project a success!
Understanding the. NET Framework Chapter 2: Getting Started with ASP. NET Chapter 3: Building Forms with Web Controls Chapter 4: Using Rich Web Controls Chapter 5: Creating and Using Custom Controls Chapter 6: Validating User Input Chapter 7: Debugging ASP.
Net Pages Chapter 1: NET Framework Overview The Internet revolution of the late s represented a dramatic shift in the way individuals and organizations communicate with each other. Traditional applications, such as word processors and accounting packages, are modeled as stand-alone applications: Most new software, in contrast, is modeled based on a distributed computing model where applications collaborate to provide services and expose functionality to each other.
As a result, the primary role of most new software is changing into supporting information exchange through Web servers and browsers , collaboration through e-mail and instant messaging , and individual expression through Web logs, also known as Blogs, and e-zines — Web based magazines. Essentially, the basic role of software is changing from providing discrete functionality to providing services. NET Framework represents a unified, object-oriented set of services and libraries that embrace the changing role of new network-centric and network-aware software.
In fact, the. NET Framework is the first platform designed from the ground up with the Internet in mind. This chapter introduces the. NET Framework in terms of the benefits it provides. I present some sample code in Visual C. NET, Visual Basic. NET, Visual Basic 6. Benefits of the. NET Framework The. NET Framework offers a number of benefits to developers: For example, the following code demonstrates how to open a file and write a one-line message to it using Visual Basic 6.
CreateTextFile "c: WriteLine "Hello World! The first method uses Visual Basic's built-in support; the second method uses the Microsoft Scripting Runtime. The difference in techniques comes from how different languages interact with and represent the underlying system that applications rely on, thereby increasing the amount of training that developers need.
The following code demonstrates how to perform the same tasks in Visual Basic. NET and Visual C.
Visual Basic. Imports System. IO Imports System. IO; using System. In fact, NET Class Library. NET Class Library is a key component of the.
NET Class Library contains hundreds of classes you can use for tasks such as the following: NET Class Library provides is available to all. NET languages, resulting in a consistent object model regardless of the programming language developers use. Direct support for security Developing an application that resides on a user's desktop system and uses local resources is easy, from a security point of view, because security simply isn't a consideration in this scenario.
Security becomes much more important when you create applications that access data on remote systems or applications that perform privileged tasks on behalf of nonprivileged users, because systems may have to authenticate users, and encryption scrambling to avoid eavesdropping may be necessary to secure data communications. An ACL contains a number of entries that specify which users may access, or are explicitly denied access, to resources such as files and printers.
ACLs are a great way of protecting executable files applications from unauthorized access, but they do not secure all parts of the file. NET Framework enables both developers and system administrators to specify method-level security.
Developers through easy-to-use programming language constructs called attributes and systems administrators by using administrative tools and byediting an application's configuration file can configure an application's security so that only authorized users can invoke a component's methods.
This makes distributed computing more secure, because. NET developers cooperate with network connectivity devices as opposed to attempting to work around their security restrictions.
Simplified development efforts Two aspects of creating Web-based applications present unique challenges to Web developers: Visual page design is straightforward when creating static content; however, when you need to present the result of executing a query in a tabular format using an ASP page, page design can get rather involved.
This is because developers need to mix traditional ASP code, which represents the application's logic, and HTML, which represents the presentation of the data. NET and the. NET Framework simplify development by allowing developers to separate an application's logic from its presentation, resulting in an easier-to-maintain code base.
NET can also handle the details of maintaining the state of controls, NET page, thereby reducing the amount of code you need to write. Visual Studio. NET, which is tightly integrated with the. NET and other applications by providing visual designers that facilitate visual drag and drop editing, making page layout and form layout a breeze.
Another aspect of creating applications is debugging. Developers sometimes make mistakes; systems don't behave as you expect them to, and unexpected conditions arise — all of these issues are collectively referred to as, using the affectionate term, "bugs.
NET Framework simplifies debugging with support for Runtime diagnostics. Runtime diagnostics not only help you track down bugs but also help you determine how well your applications perform and assess the condition of your application. NET Framework provides three types of Runtime diagnostics: The Event Log is useful for recording information about the status of your applications and provides systems administrators a means of diagnosing problems, since they can review Event Log entries using the Event Viewer supplied with Windows and available in the Administrative Tools group in the Control Panel.
There are three types of Event Log events: Represent critical errors in an application that prevent it from executing normally Events are stored in Event Logs — Windows supports three types of Event Logs: Contains messages that device drivers and system services log.
Contains system-generated messages about events that occur when security auditing is enabled The. Imports System Imports System. WriteEntry " WriteLine "Wrote 'starting' WriteLine "Wrote 'exit' NET console application that creates an Event Source called ASPnetBible and logs the application's starting and exiting events to the system's Application event log — although the listing doesn't show it, both messages are informational.
Performance counters Performance counters are useful for monitoring the health and performance of an application. You can chart the value of performance counters using the Performance applet in the Administrative Tools folder of the systems Control Panel. NET Framework makes it easy for you to read the value of existing performance counters, such as the system's percent CPU Utilization, as well as create your own application-specific performance counters.
The following code demonstrates how to work with performance counters in a simple Windows Forms application: NumberOfItems32 counterCollection. Add couterItem PerformanceCounterCategory. IncrementBy 50 System. Sleep perfCounter. IncrementBy ' Delete perfCatName This code demonstrates how to create a new performance counter category and counter using the CouterCreationDataCollection and CouterCreationData classes — the fragment shown is from the sample application's Load event handler.
In the next section of the code, from a button's Click event handler, the code creates an instance of the sample performance counter, increments it, and waits two seconds before decrementing the counter.
The last part of the code shows how to delete the performance counter when the form closes. Tracing Debugging an application by using the Visual Studio.
NET debugger is a great way to track down problems; however, there are many scenarios in which things happen too quickly to follow interactively or in which you simply need to know the sequence of events that lead to a problem before the problem occurs. Tracing is an alternative to using a debugger to step through each line of code as your application executes. You can configure ASP. NET tracing by using two methods: Both types of tracing provide similar results; however, the difference is in how you access the results for each approach.
Page-level tracing provides trace details on the ASPX page when it completes executing, and application-level tracing stores the details of the trace in a file called by default trace. NET application — you can view the file by using your browser. When you enable tracing, which is disabled by default, ASP. Table shows a fragment of a trace output from a simple ASP. NET page. Table Fragment of an ASP.
Easy application deployment and maintenance Applications are often made up of several components: NET Framework makes it possible to install applications that use some or all of these components without having to register DLLs using regsvr NET Framework makes it easy to deploy applications using zero-impact installation — often all that's required to install an application is to copy it into a directory along with the components it requires.
This is possible because the. NET Framework handles the details of locating and loading components an application needs, even if you have several versions of the same component available on a single system.
All of this is possible because the. NET Framework records extra information about an application's components — the extra information is called metadata. A component of the. NET Framework, the Class Loader, inspects an application's metadata and ensures that all of the components the application depends on are available on the system before the application begins to execute.
This feature of the. NET Framework works to isolate applications from each other despite changes in system configuration, making it easier to install and upgrade applications. Once an application is running on a system, it is sometimes necessary to change certain traits of the application, such as its security requirements, optional parameters, and even database connections.
NET Framework applications use a configuration model based on application-configuration files. A configuration file is a text file that contains XML elements that affect the behavior of an application. For example, an administrator can configure an application to use only a certain version of a component the application relies on, thereby ensuring consistent behavior regardless of how often the component is upgraded.
The following code shows an ASP. NET's basic configuration file; the file is called web. NET application will have page buffering on pages will be sent to clients only when the page is completely rendered , and that ASP. NET will track individual clients' session information as shown in the pages tag. This code also demonstrates how to define a custom configuration key, called dsn — within the appSettings section, which applications have access to through the TraceSwitch class.
Elements of the. NET Framework consists of three key elements as shown in Figure Figure Components of the. The CLR simplifies an application's design and reduces the amount of code developers need to write because it provides a variety of execution services that include memory management, thread management, component lifetime management, and default error handling.
The key benefit of the CLR is that it transparently provides these execution services to all applications, regardless of what programming language they're written in and without any additional effort on the part of the developer. The CLR is also responsible for compiling code just before it executes. Instead of producing a binary representation of your code, as traditional compilers do,. NET compilers produce a representation of your code in a language common to the.
NET Framework: When your code executes for the first time, the CLR invokes a special compiler called a Just In Time JIT compiler, which transforms the IL into executable instructions that are specific to the type and model of your system's processor.
Because all. NET languages have the same compiled representation, they all have similar performance characteristics. This means that a program written in Visual Basic. In Visual Basic, for example, String class.
Therefore, if a JScript. NET client needs to communicate with a component implemented in VB. NET, the client doesn't have to do any additional work to exchange information because it's using a type common to both JScript. NET and VB. The CTS eliminates many interoperability problems that exist outside. NET programming languages take advantage of the CTS by enabling developers to use their language's built-in data types — the. Developers can also use CTS types directly in their code if they wish.
Table describes each standard CTS data type.
Byte Unsigned 8-bit integer ranging in value from 0 to positive System. Int16 Signed bit integer capable of holding values from negative 32, to positive 32, System. Int32 Signed bit integer having a range from negative 2,,, to positive 2,,, System. Int64 Signed bit integer ranging from negative 9,,,,,, to positive 9,,,,,, System. Single Single-precision bit floating-point number System.
Double Double-precision bit floating-point number System. Decimal Signed bit floating-point value with up to 28 digits on either side of the decimal System.
Char bit Unicode character unsigned values System. String Sequence of Unicode characters with a capacity of about two billion characters System. Object bit address, referencing an instance of a class System.
Boolean Unsigned bit number that may contain only 0 False or 1 True You can use other non-CTS-compliant data types in your applications and components; you're free to use non-CTS-compliant data types, but they may not be available on other implementations of the. NET Framework for other operating systems see Table SByte Signed 8-bit integer ranging from negative to positive System.
UInt16 bit unsigned integer ranging from 0 to positive 65, System. UInt32 bit unsigned integer ranging from 0 to positive 4,,, System. UInt64 bit unsigned integer ranging from 0 to positive ,,,,,, NET Class Library was described as containing hundreds of classes that model the system and services it provides.
To make the. NET Class Library easier to work with and understand, it's divided into namespaces. The root namespace of the. Secondary namespaces reside within the System namespace. Examples of nested namespaces include the following: Makes it easy to work with data from multiple data sources System. OleDb resides within this namespace and contains the ADO. Contains classes for working with files and data streams Figure illustrates the relationship between some of the major namespaces in the.
Organization of the. NET Class Library include a consistent set of services available to all. NET languages and simplified deployment, because the.
NET Class Library is available on all implementations of the. NET Framework. Unifying components Until this point, this chapter has covered the low-level components of the. The unifying components, listed next, are the means by which you can access the services the. NET Framework provides: NET NET introduces two major features: Web Forms and Web Services. Web Forms Developers not familiar with Web development can spend a great deal of time, for example, figuring out how to validate the e-mail address on a form.
You can validate the information on a form by using a client-side script or a server-side script. Deciding which kind of script to use is complicated by the fact that each approach has its benefits and drawbacks, some of which aren't apparent unless you've done substantial design work. If you validate the form on the client by using client-side JScript code, you need to take into consideration the browser that your users may use to access the form.
Not all browsers expose exactly the same representation of the document to programmatic interfaces. If you validate the form on the server, you need to be aware of the load that users might place on the server. The server has to validate the data and send the result back to the client. Web Forms simplify Web development to the point that it becomes as easy as dragging and dropping controls onto a designer the surface that you use to edit a page to design interactive Web applications that span from client to server.
Web Services A Web service is an application that exposes a programmatic interface through standard access methods.
Web Services are designed to be used by other applications and components and are not intended to be useful directly to human end users.
Web Services make it easy to build applications that integrate features from remote sources. For example, you can write a Web Service that provides weather information for subscribers of your service instead of having subscribers link to a page or parse through a file they download from your site.
Clients can simply call a method on your Web Service as if they are calling a method on a component installed on their system — and have the weather information available in an easy-to-use format that they can integrate into their own applications or Web sites with no trouble.
Windows Forms Windows Forms is the name of a unified set of classes that provides support for creating traditional desktop applications — applications that have a graphical user interface GUI. Windows Forms make it easy to develop end-user applications using any.
NET programming language.